Atoning sacrifice – the only basis of salvation
The dogma of redemption – is the heart of the Orthodox faith. All dogmatic statements in triadalogii, Christology, ecclesiology and soteriology tested Fathers of the Church especially in relation to the possibility of redemption and salvation of man by Christ. It is not only criterion of purity of faith, but also a stumbling block for heretics and false teachers of the apostolic age to the present day.
Dogma of Redemption particularly annoying liberal theologians, who like the ancient Jews did not want to admit that Christ has redeemed and freed them from bondage of sin and the devil’s power. They believe that they were born free and receive a paradise, as his ancestral heritage, and the gospel is regarded as a guide to self-improvement. They are alien to the dogma of redemption – it is the unshakable foundation, on which rests the New Testament Church.
In other religions, and in almost all religions dogma of redemption is absent or radically distorted. In Judaism, this dogma did not exist. According to the teaching of Talmud Adams sin does not extend to his descendants. Jew saved by the execution of the requirements of the Torah and the Talmud. Expected Messiah saves people from sin not, and Israel from its enemies. The most sinful of the Jews temporarily suffer in hell, but then receive forgiveness through the prayers of Abraham and other saints. Thus, in Judaism contains a unique national “apokatastasis.
To Islam the doctrine of redemption is absent. Execution of the Koran and the Sunna (tradition) is a guarantee of salvation for a Muslim. Mohammed is not the Redeemer, and Messenger, through which Allah revealed to people their will. The Quran categorically denies not only the Christian doctrine of the sacrifice of Christ, but the fact of the crucifixion. According to the teachings of the Koran, Jesus was taken to heaven like the prophet Elijah, and instead of him was crucified Simon Kirineysky (this idea is found already in the second century at the Gnostic Basilides). Muslims believe that all believers in Islam, no matter what sins they have committed, in the end will be forgiven and saved by the prayers of Muhammad and his successors. Thus, in Islam we see the confessional “apokatastasis.
In Buddhism, as there is no idea of any redemption. Buddhism rejects the existence of God as absolute spirit. The idea of eternal life, as a continuation of life, arouses Buddhist horror and disgust, he seeks salvation at death, immersing himself in a mental vacuum, where there are no feelings, thoughts and desires. This mental samoumerschvlenie perceived them as the highest metaphysical state. Nirvana – a breakthrough in an image and feeling the emptiness of their existence as antibytiya where there is suffering – a cherished goal of Buddhism.
Paganism, in the very high ups and the ancient Hindu philosophy and mythology, knew nothing about the world the redemptive sacrifice, which will bring God for humanity. In Hinduism, salvation is a dissolution of the individual in the outer, space – in meonicheskom, meonicheskogo – in absolute terms, the personality, as such, disappears savior is Shiva – Indian Satan, who destroys worlds.
Only Christianity has brought the world the good news that humanity is redeemed by the blood of Christ. On this news pagan and Jewish world has responded to severe persecution. Cross of Christ seemed pagan philosophers madness, and Jewish teachers – the humiliation of a deity. However, in the days of the apostles among the Christians there were heretics-Docket, which taught that Christ came to earth a dream in a certain etheric body. This heresy rejected the dogma of redemption. If Christ did not take human flesh, His suffering illusory, it means that redemption is also illusory, and she turns into a scene of Calvary, where the role of magician performs the Son of God. This heretical doctrine of “divine deception” was so harmful and blasphemous, that the apostle John forbade Christians to let the preachers Docetism in their homes and even welcome them at the meeting.
Other Gnostics also denied the atoning sacrifice of Christ the Savior. The Gnostics of the first century, Simon Magus carried with him a woman named Helen – the whore of Tyre, and taught that his wife was the image of the human soul, and he was – the embodiment of a god or higher aeon, who took in their communication to a fallen woman. This indulgent deity to replace the harlot redemption Simon the sorcerer.
Several departing from the theme, we note the following. Confused and obscure the teachings of Simon the sorcerer looks like. Divine birth to thought – enniyu; enniya creates angels, and those rebelling against their ancestors and place it in the bonds of matter. Enniya passes into the body of Helen the Beautiful, because of which had fallen Troy, and Helen-prostitute from Tyre, which Simon Magus makes his companion. Vicious lives of women, which is embodied enniya not defile the very enniyu and she remains in the body whores clean spark of deity. Therein lies the secret teachings of the Gnostics that the soul does not depend on bodily affairs, as the royal prisoner does not lose his dignity because he is not in the palace, but in a dark dungeon. This means that you can be given to vices and remain clean.
Another Gnostic Carpocrates developed the theory of Simon the sorcerer. He believed the body of a constant enemy of souls and taught that we should indulge in debauchery to iznemozhit and kill the body, and allow the soul rather be free from oppression. The humiliation of the body through the vices and depravity Carpocrates believed salvation of the soul and the analog of redemption. That infamous doctrine of Syrian Gnostics later gave its readers writer Satanist Anatole France in the story “Taisa” where prostitution, presented as a kind of redemption.
Second century Gnostic Basilides theogonic creates a system of 360 eons by the number of days a year. Aeon Sophia falls from the Pleroma – the fullness of life and wallowing in a swamp of substance. It condescends to it one of the highest eons – Christ and the shining of his light opens her the glory she had while in pleroma. Following Christ Sophia returned to his heavenly abode. There is no redemption here. A well-known church historian Robertson wrote: “The doctrine of atonement was incompatible with the start of Basilides. He has taken no other excuse than a justification through improvements in the consecration, and declared that everyone will answer for his own sins “(” History of the Christian Church, Robertson, a fact 45.str.). Basilides denied original sin and the atoning sacrifice of Christ, and reduces everything to learning.
The largest second-century Gnostic was Valentine, who described the vicissitudes and wanderings of Sofia, in the spirit dedektivno-mystical novel. In contrast, Basilides he admitted redemption, but in such a distorted and distorted form, that it had nothing to do with the apostolic teaching about Christ’s sacrifice.
Valentin divided people into three groups: physical, mental and spiritual. In order to save spiritual people (the tires) were enough knowledge of the Gnostic teachings, and they were saved, regardless of their own affairs and moral prescriptions. For the soul, which include Valentine attributed church Christians, Jesus was crucified, before the crucifixion he left the divine aeon-Christ and his own supreme spirit. Through the crucifixion, Jesus showed sincere Christians (mind) how to improve themselves through suffering. Here was an example, and not a scapegoat, and the impact such catharsis in the ancient tragedy. Mental, in contrast to the spiritual, could be saved or perish according to his deeds.
Every heresy associated with rejection or distortion of the dogma of redemption. If there is no redemption, the Christological dogmas lose their meaning, and they become indifferent to soteriology. Humanity could redeem only God-man who has the fullness of God’s existence and perfection of human nature. And to show the moral precepts and example of Christ could, in the interpretation of the Gnostics, Nestorians and monophysites.
If Christ is not the Redeemer, and the teacher, the Christology is no longer necessary for salvation, as an example and teachings of the Divine are external to the man, and redemption – the replacement of human Son of God on the cross, that is mystical ontology.
Why Orthodox theologians, apologists so implacably fought the Arians, considering this heresy loss of eternal life? Because the Son of God, not equal to God the Father and the other to him by nature, could not produce a perfect, infinite, in dignity, a sacrifice of atonement for all mankind, and to mediate between the Holy Trinity and the descendants of Adam.
Why does the Orthodox Church for centuries has fought and is fighting with Monophysitism? Because Monophysitism distorts the doctrine of redemption. If a single nature of Christ, it is not clear who suffered on the cross, who died and rose again: in fact the Divine impassive and unchangeable. If Jesus had a divine nature, then, how can humanity have been replaced by Christ on Calvary?
Nestorianism, with his doctrine of the sinful nature of Jesus and the two individuals connected to him morally and perverting the doctrine of the atonement. If human nature is sinful, then the suffering and death are consequences of sin, and not a voluntary victim.
Catholics and a large proportion of Protestants believe in the redemption of man by Christ, but ecclesiological mistake their confessions do not give them the opportunity to enjoy the fruits of redemption.
Currently active forces that want to reform Christianity in the spirit of humanism and liberalism, ridicule