J Foster Dulles / Burt Lance / Harold Ickes
Image by dbking
Former home of:
John Foster Dulles (Secretary of State under Eisenhower)
Bert Lance (Director of the Office of Management and Budget under Carter)
Harold Ickes (White House Deputy Chief of Staff under Clinton)
3107 Dumbarton Ave. NW
—Republican John Foster Dulles travelled so much by plane that people said he took to the air to avoid being a sitting duck for Congressional Democrats
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) was an American statesman who served as Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954.
Born in Washington D.C., he was the son of a Presbyterian minister and attended public schools in Watertown, NY. After attending Princeton University and The George Washington University he joined the New York City law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. He tried to join the United States Army during World War I but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles got an Army commission as captain in the War Industries Board.
Both his grandfather John W. Foster and his uncle Robert Lansing served as Secretary of State. He was also the older brother of Allen Welsh Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence under Eisenhower. His son Avery Robert Dulles converted to Catholicism and became the first American priest to be directly appointed to Cardinal, although his advanced age prohibited him from voting in the College of Cardinals in 2005 following the death of Pope John Paul II.
In 1918 Woodrow Wilson appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference where he served under his uncle, Robert Lansing, then Secretary of State. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat by clearly and forcefully arguing against imposing crushing reparations on Germany. Afterwards he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at the request of President Wilson. Dulles, a deeply religious man, attended numerous international conferences of churchmen during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924, he was the defense counsel in the church trial of Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, who had been charged with heresy by opponents in the denomination, a case settled when Fosdick, a liberal Baptist, resigned his pulpit in the Presbyterian Church, which he had never joined. Dulles also became a partner at Sullivan & Cromwell. In the 1930’s, according to Stephen Kinzer’s 2006 book "Overthrow", Dulles was an active supporter and collaborator with the Nazis.
Dulles was a close associate of Thomas E. Dewey who became the presidential candidate of the United States Republican Party in the U.S. presidential election, 1944. During the election Dulles served as Dewey’s foreign policy adviser.
In 1945 Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference and worked as adviser to Arthur H. Vandenberg and helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter. He subsequently attended the United Nations General Assembly as a United States delegate in 1946, 1947 and 1950. Dulles was appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican from New York on July 7, 1949, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democrat Robert F. Wagner. Dulles served from July 7, 1949, to November 8, 1949, when a successor, Herbert Lehman, was elected, having beaten Dulles in a special election to fill the senate vacancy.
In 1950, Dulles published War or Peace, a critical analysis of the American policy of containment, which at the time was favored by many of the foreign policy elites in Washington. Dulles criticized the foreign policy of Harry S. Truman. He argued that containment should be replaced by a policy of "liberation". However, he still carried out Truman’s policy in neutralizing the Taiwan Strait during the Korean War in the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951. When Dwight Eisenhower became President in January, 1953, he appointed Dulles as his Secretary of State.
Secretary of State
Dulles with president Eisenhower in 1956As Secretary of State Dulles spent considerable time building up NATO as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in event of a war. In 1950 he helped instigate the ANZUS Treaty for mutual protection with Australia and New Zealand. One of his first major policy shifts towards a more aggressive posture against communism, Dulles directed the CIA in March of 1953 to draft plans to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran . This led directly to the Coup d’état via Operation Ajax which installed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as the Shah of Iran.
Dulles was also the architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) that was created in 1954. The treaty, signed by representatives of the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand, provided for collective action against aggression.
Dulles was one of the pioneers of Mutually Assured Destruction and brinkmanship. In an article written for Life Magazine Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art." His critics blamed him for damaging relations with Communist states and contributing to the Cold War.
Dulles upset the leaders of several non-aligned countries when on June 9, 1955, he argued in one speech that "neutrality has increasingly become an obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception."
Dulles provided some consternation and amusement to the British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand ambassadors by his repeated attempts to tell substantially different versions of events to them. Apparently unbeknownst to Dulles the men had all in attended Cambridge together and followed up meetings with Dulles by comparing notes and reporting the discrepancies to their home countries.
In 1956 Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt (October-November 1956). However, by 1958 he was an outspoken opponent of President Gamal Abdel Nasser and stopped him from receiving weapons from the United States. This policy seemingly backfired, enabling the Soviet Union to gain influence in the Middle East.
Dulles also served as the former Chairman and Co-founder of the Commission on a Just and Durable Peace of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (succeeded by the National Council of Churches), Chairman of the Board for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a former Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, and a founding member of the Council of Foreign Relations.
Death and legacy
Suffering from cancer, Dulles was forced by his declining health to resign from office in April 1959. He died in Washington, D.C. on May 24, 1959, at the age of 71, and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1959.
The Washington Dulles International Airport (located in Dulles, Virginia) and John Foster Dulles High School (Sugar Land, Texas) were both named in honor of Dulles.
Carol Burnett first rose to prominence in the 1950s singing a novelty song, "I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles"; more recently, Gil Scott Heron commented "John Foster Dulles ain’t nothing but the name of an airport now" in the song "B-Movie".
Thomas Bertram Lance, known as Bert Lance, (Born June 3, 1931 in Gainesville, Georgia) is an American politician and businessman.
Lance was a close adviser and friend to candidate for President Jimmy Carter, during Carter’s successful 1976 campaign. After Carter’s victory, Lance was named director of the Office of Management and the Budget (OMB). Within six months of Lance’s assuming this position, questions were raised by the press and Congress about mismanagement and corruption when Lance was Chairman of the Board of Calhoun National Bank of Calhoun, Georgia. He became an embarrassment to Carter’s administration, especially given the reputation that Carter had tried to build of uncorruptablity in the wake of the Watergate scandal of the Nixon administration earlier in the 1970s. Lance resigned as OMB director on September 21, 1977. In the very public trial that followed, Mr. Lance was subsequently acquitted of all charges.
In 1981, Lance returned to the Calhoun National Bank, again as Chairman. He left in 1986.
Press reports have suggested that Lance was involved in the BCCI scandal of the 1980s and early 1990s.
Shortly after Lance’s resignation as OMB Director, on the Saturday Night Live television show, John Belushi (playing Lance) and Dan Aykroyd (playing Jimmy Carter) performed an advertising parody. The skit was a commercial for the "National Express" credit card, a parody of then-current American Express commercials.
One famouse press article that contributed greatly to the groundswell against Bert Lance in 1976 was an article by William Safire, called Carter’s Broken Lance, for which Safire earned a Pulitzer Prize.
—————————————————————————————————————–Harold McEwen Ickes (born September 4, 1939) was deputy White House chief of staff for President Bill Clinton. He is the son of Harold L. Ickes, who was Secretary of the Interior under Franklin D. Roosevelt. Ickes chaired Clinton’s presidential campaign in New York in 1992. Before that, he was a senior advisor to David Dinkins’ successful mayoral election in 1989. In 2000, he was a senior advisor to Hillary Clinton’s Senate campaign. He now heads the Media Fund, a 527 committee. . He was also an initial contender against Howard Dean for the chairmanship of the Democratic National Committee (DNC).
As a member of the DNC’s Rules committee he was a proponent of adding other states besides Iowa and New Hampshire early on in the Presidential nominating calendar. He was unsucessful in his promotion of Alabama as the second primary state, behind New Hampshire, which lost to South Carolina.
Since 2005 Ickes has been associated with a George Soros funded Democratic data collection and voter file organization called "Data Warehouse".